The Buddha’s Last Words 佛陀最后的教诲

The Buddha's Last Words

Final Nirvana of the Buddha

The Buddha himself was subjected to disease and decay like us. Describing his own eightieth-year body as a “worn-out cart”, his once beautiful complexion became flabby and wrinkled and he had to endure severe pain and illness which he bore with mindfulness.

In the Maha-parinibbana Sutta, realising the impermanent nature of life and all worldly phenomena, the Buddha has advised us to work out our own deliverance by being heedful.

He also stressed on the importance of individual striving as no one can walk the path for us.

“Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Seek no external refuge.
Live with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge.
Betake to no external refuge.”

The Buddha made no attempt to appoint a successor. “Now, if it occurs to any of you – ‘The teaching has lost its authority; we are without a Teacher’ – do not view it in that way. Whatever Dhamma and Vinaya I have pointed out and formulated for you, that will be your Teacher when I am gone.”

“Ripe my age, little is the life remaining to me.
Leaving you, I will go, having made a refuge for myself.
Be heedful, monks, mindful, virtuous.
With your resolves well-concentrated, look after your minds.”

Finally in his last word, the Buddha continued to stress on the importance of cultivation.

“Now, then, monks, I exhort you;
All fabrications are subject to decay.
Bring about completion by being heedful.”

成道后佛陀弘法49年,教授八万四千法门后又示现涅槃。让我们感恩,伟大的佛陀!南无本师释迦牟尼佛!

根据《遗教经》上说,佛陀以吉祥卧的姿势卧在娑罗双树之间床上,很多的弟子围绕在佛陀的四周,大家都是揩鼻抹泪。佛陀和平常说法没有两样,静静的向诸弟子作最后的遗教:

“诸比丘弟子!我涅槃以后,你们要尊敬珍重波罗提木叉,善为受持,不要遗忘。戒就是指导你们的大师,你们持戒,如贫穷的人得到宝物,如黑暗中燃起明灯。这和我住世,没有什么不同。

“诸比丘弟子!你们要弘通正法,从事自利利他和救人救世的真理,不要贪图财利,不要贩卖贸易安置田宅。你们修道利人,自有人供养,不用为生活操心。

“诸比丘弟子!你们要奉行正法,不要占相吉凶和咒术仙药,不要结好贵人,亲厚媟慢,你们应该节身时食,清净自活;要端心正念求度,不要显异惑众。

诸比丘弟子!你们更应该节制六根,不要让六根追逐六尘,以免放逸堕落。好像管理凶悍的恶马,一定要用辔制,不然,将会把人牵坠入陷坑之中。恶马之害,只有一世,六根之害,殃及累世,这是不能不谨慎注意的。

诸比丘弟子!眼耳鼻舌身意的六根,是以心为主,大家要好好制心,心的可畏,甚于毒蛇、恶兽、怨贼。好像人的手中拿着蜜器,动转轻躁,观看到蜜,不见前面举步就有陷坑。放纵心意,好像狂象无钩,猿猴得树,能够丧失一切善事,所以你们要精进修道,把心栖于安静的境界。

诸比丘弟子!你们接受到饮食供养,应当作服药之想,好和坏都不要增减。不要起贪嗔之心,饮食不过是为资养色身,除去身体的饥渴。受食要如蜜蜂在花上采蜜,但取其味,不损食香,不要多求,以免坏其善心。

诸比丘弟子!假如有恶人前来伤害你们,你们当自摄心,不要起嗔恨的念头;更要护口,不要说恶毒的语言。你们要知道放纵嗔恚的心,就能妨碍修道,破诸善法,坏好名闻,失去一切功德之宝。忍的美德,持戒和苦行都不能及。能够行忍的人,才是有力大人!假若不能用欢喜之心,忍受恶骂之毒,如饮甘露,就不能称做有道的智慧之人。

诸比丘弟子!你们不要有骄慢的心,不要有谄曲的心,不要有欺诳的心,不要有悭吝的心,心宜端正,以质直为本。

“诸比丘弟子!你们应当知道多欲的人,苦恼亦多;少欲的人,才是住于安稳的世界。你们要脱离苦恼,就要知足,知足之法,才是幸福安乐之道。

“诸比丘弟子!你们要勤于精进弘法修道,则事无大小,就没有困难之处,好像涓涓的细流,也能凿石穿山,进入大川巨海。否则,对于弘法的家务,利生的事业,常常懈废,如同攒木取火,未热而息,虽然要想得火,火怎能自动跑出来呢?

“诸比丘弟子!你们要不忘正念,一切烦恼恶魔就不能侵入。你们要做勇猛的将军,披着重铠,持着禅定的刀刃,征服六尘境界的魔军;佩着智慧的利剑,知道世间生灭的法相,降伏一切诸有的苦患。

诸比丘弟子!在生死的大海中,你们要撑好智慧的法船,渡过愚痴爱执的浊流,燃着智慧的灯光,走过无明闇冥的世间。常以闻思修的智慧,才能进入三摩地。

“诸比丘弟子!你们要记好我说的法,不要忘失。我如良医,知病说药,服与不服,咎不在医;我又如善导,导人善道,闻者不行,过不在导。